Law & Language

The Program Inhalt einblenden


The Law & Language Center offers the Law & Language Program in Anglo-American and international legal studies in the English language. This program provides students with a unique opportunity to study Anglo-American law in the language of the legal system. It also exposes them to International Law and the Law of the European Union as expressed in English. The purpose of this program is to prepare students for international legal practice and for participation in graduate law programs in English-speaking countries.

The program aims to introduce students to the basic notions of the common law system as well as to acquaint them with some fields of substantive law in England and the United States, or the law of the European Union. Students throughout the program learn about the underlying law and legal system in the original language, allowing them to learn the terminology together with the legal institutions.

The planned timeframe of the Program stretches over 4 semesters. Students are required to complete the Introduction to Anglo-American Law I and Introduction to Anglo-American Law II courses (always offered in the Winter Semester) in order to be admitted to the Program. From then on, they may select the courses they wish from those being offered in the respective semester. The Program generally offers two courses each semester but completion may be faster if students complete the occasionally offered block courses.

In order to complete the Program, students need to pass an Intermediate Exam (written exam) after 4 courses (8 SWS). Intermediate exams are being offered by the Law & Language Center at around the middle of each semester. Intermediate Exams are graded and students receive a "Zeugnis." After 8 courses (16 SWS), students need pass a Final Exam (both written and oral exam). Final exams are being offered by the Law & Language Center at the end of each semester. Final Exams are graded and students receive a "Zertifikat.


News Inhalt einblenden


Änderungen im Law & Language-Programm

Beginnend mit dem Wintersemester 2015/16 werden im Law & Language-Programm Änderungen erfolgen. Die Grundstruktur des Programms bleibt jedoch unverändert.

1. Die bisherigen Einführungsveranstaltungen "Introduction to Anglo-American Law & Language I/II" werden durch die Vorlesung "The English Legal System" ersetzt. Dabei handelt es sich um eine zweiteilige Veranstaltung, sodass nach wie vor 4 SWS zu absolvieren sind. Nähere Informationen unter "Courses".

2. Der inhaltliche Fokus des Programms wird vom Recht der USA auf das Recht von England und Wales verschoben. Die Zwischen- und Abschlussprüfungen werden aber nach wie vor so gestaltet, dass auch Studenten mit "alten" Scheinen die Aufgabenstellungen mit ihrem Wissen bewältigen können.


Courses Inhalt einblenden

The following courses are offered in the sommsemester 2020. Times and location will also be announced in Friedolin and on the board of the Chair for International law (1st floor).


  • Reading Group: Dignity, Digitality, Dystopia: Selected Readings in the Law and Theory of Technology

Lecturer: PD Mag. Dr. Matthias C. Kettemann, LL.M. (Harvard)

Times and location: Siehe Friedolin

Course description:

No single comprehensive theory of online order exists to date. This is noticeable. Existing regulatory approaches to the Internet suffer from a lack of theoretical grounding. They may be pragmatic, even successful, but are they sustainable? Do they cohere with the Internet order’s goals? Through selected readings we will study the potential of theoretical approaches to solving three key normative crises on the Internet: normative froth (too many norms, e.g. on AI and ethics), normative friction and fractures (conflicts between national legal orders and between public and private legal orders) and technical fragmentation (challenges to the integrity of the Internet by states wishing for more control over Internet resources). Key theories of order in the broader sense will be distilled from the readings and discussed. Though the majority of these theories were not posited with a view to the internet, the course will draw from their epistemic potential for the regulation of the internet. Theories (and key representatives of that theory) include systems theory (Luhmann/Teubner), constitutionalization/global constitutionalism (Pernice), transnationalism (Viellechner, Calliess), legal pluralism (Seinecke), multi-normativity (Forst), network theory (Vesting), interoperability theory (Palfrey, Gasser, Weber), massive online micro justice (De Werra), conflict studies (Mueller), and infrastructuralization (DeNardis)


1)       Tu 14 Apr        18-20              On the Independence of Cyberspace         


  • A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace by John Perry Barlow (p. 5) and any two other articles in
  • [1] Duke Law & Technology Review 18 (August 2019), Special Symposium Issue, Special Editor: James Boyle: The Past and Future of the Internet: A Symposium for John Perry Barlow 

(2)       Tu 21 Apr        18-20              Theory as World-Making


  • [2.1.] Kettemann, The Normative Order of the Internet. A Theory of Rule and Regulation Online (Oxford: OUP, 2020), chapter 5;

and one of the following:

  • [2.2.] Thomas Schultz, Carving up the Internet: Jurisdiction, Legal Orders, and the Private/Public International Law Interface, EJIL (2008), Vol. 19 No. 4, 799–839;
  • [2.3.] Gunther Teubner, Constitutional Fragments: Societal Constitutionalism and Globalization (2012), Oxford Scholarship Online;
  • [2.4.] Nico Krisch, Pluralism in International Law and Beyond, forthcoming in Fundamental Concepts for International Law: The Construction of a Discipline (Jean d’Aspremont & Sahib Singh, eds.) (2020).

(3)       Tu 28 Apr        18-20              Concepts as Epistemic Signals


  • [3.1.] Thomas Poell, David Nieborg and José van Dijck, Platformisation. Internet Policy Review, 8(4) (2019);
  • [3.2.] Ulises A. Mejias and Nick Couldry, Datafication. Internet Policy Review, 8(4) (2019); and
  • [3.3.] Laura DeNardis, Internet Points of Control as Global Governance, CIGI Internet Governance Papers, Paper No. 2 (August 2013).

(4)       Tu 12 May      18-20              Algorithmic Governance


  • [4.1.] Christian Katzenbach and Lena Ulbricht, Algorithmic Governance, Internet Policy Review 8 (2019) 4

and one of the following:

  • [4.2.] Florian Saurwein, Natascha Just, Michael Latzer, Governance of algorithms: options and limitations, info 17 (2015) 6, 35-49;
  • [4.3.] Natascha Just and Michael Latzer, Governance by algorithms: reality construction by algorithmic selection on the Internet, Media, Culture & Society 39 (2017) 2, 238–258;
  • [4.4.] Joshua A. Kroll et al., Accountable Algorithms, University of Pennsylvania Law Review (165) (2017), 633.

(5)       Tu 19 May      18-20              Normative Ordering


  • [5.1.] Robert M. Cover, Foreword: Nomos and Narrative, Harvard Law Review 97 (1983) 1, 4-68 (especially 4-35); and
  • [5.2.] Kettemann, The Normative Order of the Internet. A Theory of Rule and Regulation Online (Oxford: OUP, 2020), chapter 6.

(6)       Tu 26 May       18-20              Privatization 

Select two or three chapters from

  • [6.1.] Nicolas P. Suzor, Lawless. The secret rules that govern our digital lives (Cambridge: CUP, 2019), part II; 

and read

  • [6.2.] Matthias C. Kettemann/Wolfgang Schulz, Setting Rules for 2.7 Billion: A (First) Look Into Facebook’s Norm-Making System. Results of a Pilot Study.

 (7)       We 27 May     16-18              Constitutionalization


  • [7.1.] Ingolf Pernice, Global Constitutionalism and the Internet. Taking People Seriously, HIIG Discussion Paper Series, Discussion Paper Number, 2015-01, 10 March 2015; and
  • [7.2.] Eduardo Celeste, Digital constitutionalism. Mapping the constitutional response to digital technology’s challenges, HIIG Discussion Paper Series 2018-02.

If you are particularly interested, read

  • [7.3.] Ralf Michaels, The Re-State-Ment of Non-State Law: The State, Choice of Law, and the Challenge from Global Legal Pluralism, The Wayne Law Review  51 (2005), 1209


  • Law and Practice of International Dispute Settlement

Lecturer: PD Mag. Dr. Matthias C Kettemann LL.M. (Harvard)

Times and location: Siehe Friedolin

Course description:

Modern international law, just as modern society, abhors (international) armed conflict – and rightly so. Article 2 (3) of the UN Charter mandates that UN member states shall settle their international disputes “by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security, and justice, are not endangered“. Realizing the international rule of law is therefore premised upon a functioning system of international dispute settlement. The course will discuss the principal means of settlement of international disputes: diplomatic/political methods (negotiation, good offices/mediation, inquiry, conciliation) and judicial approaches (and arbitration, which combines elements of both). While arbitration has seen some uptake more recently, the last years have been characterized by the proliferation of international courts and tribunals and the progressive inclusion of non-state actors, including individuals. In this course you will learn how to settle international disputes quickly and effectively. For this, you will need an understanding of the different regional and global judicial forums of dispute settlement, their set-up, legal basis, legitimacy and decision-making procedures. Special attention will be given to the International Court of Justice, the International Criminal Court, the European Court of Human Rights, the International Tribunal of the Law of the Sea, the Permanent Court of Arbitration and dispute settlement procedures in international economic law (WTO) and international investment law (ICSID). But we will also discuss private dispute settlement by Internet companies, including online sales companies and social media service providers, and arbitration by sports federations.


  • Merrills, International Dispute Settlement, 6th ed., Cambridge University Press 2017
  • Tanaka, The Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes, Cambridge University Press, 2018

Background reading:

  • Bjorge/Miles (eds.), Landmark Cases in Public International Law, Hart Publishing, 2017
  • von Bogdandy/Venzke, In whose name? A Public Law Theory of International Adjudication, Cambridge University Press, 2014
  • Knoops, An Introduction to the Law of International Criminal Tribunals: A Comparative Study, 2nd ed. (2014)
  • Romano et al. (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of International Adjudication, Oxford University Press 2015
  • Schabas (ed.), Research Handbook on International Courts and Tribunals, E. Elgar 2017
  • Schabas, The International Criminal Court – A Commentary on the Rome Statute, 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press 2016
  • Schröder, Verantwortlichkeit, Völkerstrafrecht, Streitbeilegung und Sanktionen, in: W. Graf Vitzthum/A. Proelß (eds.), Völkerrecht, 7th ed., DeGruyter, 2013, pp. 539 – 590
  • Shaw, Rosenne’s Law and Practice of the International Court: 1920–2015, Volumes I - IV, Nijhoff 2016
  • Wolfrum/Gätzschmann (eds.), International Dispute Settlement: Room for Innnovations, Springer 2013
  • Zimmermann et al. (eds.), The Statute of the International Court of Justice: A Commentary, 2nd Ed., Oxford University Press 2012


  • Abass, Complete International Law: text, cases, and materials, 2nd edition, 2014
  • Evans (ed.), Blackstone’s International Law Documents, 12th ed., 2015
  • Tams/Tzanakopoulos, The Settlement of International Disputes, Basic Documents, 2012


Journal of International Dispute Settlement,



  • Law of the European Union

Lecturer: PD Mag. Dr. Matthias C. Kettemann LL.M. (Harvard)

Times and location: Siehe Friedolin


Course description:

This course takes student on a normative journey into the history, status quo and future of European integration as realized through the increasingly intricate order of EU law. From its modest beginnings to the Treaty of Lisbon of 2009 and beyond, the EU has developed into a supranational legal order complete with fundamental rights and a constitutional order. We will delve into the institutional structure of the European Union and its main bodies; its relationship to international law and national laws; fundamental rights protection; the four freedoms; the secrets of comitology; the potential of coordinated external action; law enforcement; the single market; and the future of the EU after Brexit. We will use leading cases by the Court of Justice of the EU to guide our discussions and learn to work with primary and secondary sources effectively.


  • Damian Chalmers, Gareth Davies, and Giorgio Monti, European Union Law (4th ed.; Cambridge University Press, 2019)
  • Robert Schütze, European Union Law (2nd ed.; Cambridge University Press, 2018)
  • Catherine Barnard and Steve Peers, European Union Law (2nd ed.; Oxford University Press, 2017)
  • Lorna Woods, Philippa Watson, and Marios Costa, Steiner & Woods on EU Law (13th ed.; Oxford University Press, 2017)
  • Paul Craig and Gráinne de Búrca, EU Law: Text, Cases, and Materials (6th ed.; Oxford University Press, 2015)

 Statute books:

  • Nigel Foster, Blackstone’s EU Treaties & Legislation 2019-2020 (30th ed.; Oxford University Press, 2019)
  • Paul Drury, Core EU Legislation 2018-2019 (3rd ed.; Macmillan, 2018)
  • Robert Schütze, EU Treaties and Legislation (2nd ed.; Cambridge University Press, 2018)


  • International Internet Law

Lecturer: PD Mag. Dr. Matthias C. Kettemann, LL.M. (Harvard)

Times and location: Siehe Friedolin


Course description:

The course investigates the role of (international) law (and social and legal norms more generally) in solving challenging legal, political, social and economic conflicts related to the Internet and the distribution of power and goods in the information society. We will analyze key concept related to the norms, ruling (justification) narratives and practices of states, companies and individuals on (and pertaining to) the Internet. We will then focus on intricate legal problems of the Internet age. Among the topics we will discuss are cyber-war, cyber-terrorism and cyber-crime; Internet surveillance and data protection; freedom of expression online and its limits; changing conceptions of privacy and evolving notions of private and public spaces; the (illusory) utopian role of social media; and the right to access the Internet. Case studies will allow us deep dives into the attempts by companies to develop private online orders, the practice of cyberdiplomacy and the challenge of ensuring access to the next billion users and of keeping the underlying infrastructure – technical just as normative – secure and stable.


Up-to-date readings will be provided online.


  • Constitutional & Administration Law

Lecturer: Dr. Stephen Swann

Times and location:

  • Monday, 08:00 - 10:00, Carl-Zeiß-Straße 3, SR 223
  • Tuesday, 12:00 - 14:00, Carl-Zeiß-Straße 3, SR 221

Course description:

This course explores fundamental elements of British constitutional law and administrative law in England and Wales. Starting with essential tenets of the UK constitutional structure, including the impact of EU membership (and prospectively Brexit), lectures will address various aspects of the constitution and operation of the UK’s legislature and executive before turning to the devolution of power within the UK. In the second half of the course the focus will be on (i) human rights and their protection and (ii) judicial review and other redress for maladministration. The course will highlight diffused and multi-layered accountability for the exercise of power within current British constitutional structures. Across the teaching sessions there will be opportunity both to assess understanding by application to problem scenarios and to deepen understanding of the relevant debates.

AW Bradley, KD Ewing and CJS Knight, Constitutional and Administrative Law, 16th Edition, Pearson (2015)

In addition students should purchase a copy of a statute book, such as Robert G Lee, Blackstone's Statutes on Public Law & Human Rights 2016-2017, 26th edition, Oxford University Press (2016).


  • Equity & Trusts

Lecturer: Dr. Stephen Swann

Times and location:

  • Monday 16:00 - 18:00 Uhr, Carl-Zeiß-Straße 3, SR 225
  • Thursday 08:00 - 10:00 Uhr, Carl-Zeiß-Straße 3, SR 221

Course description:

This course examines the fundamental concepts and principles of Equity, as it applies in the legal system of England and Wales, with a predominant focus on the law of trusts, a central pillar of English property law. After an introduction to Equity, lectures will focus on the nature of the trust, the different types of trust, the essential requirements of an express trust, and the various legal problems that may arise when a requirement is not satisfied. Besides difficulties with private trusts we will address legal issues more specific to trusts in commercial and not-for-profit contexts. In the final third of the course we turn to administration of trusts and remedies for breach of trust. Across the teaching sessions there will be opportunity both to assess understanding by applying the law to problem scenarios and to deepen understanding of the legal debates and settings within which trusts operate.

Graham Virgo, The Principles of Equity and Trusts, 2nd edn, Oxford University Press (2016)

In addition students should purchase a copy of a property law statute book, such as Meryl Thomas (ed.), Blackstone’s Statutes on Property Law 2016-2017, 24th edn, Oxford University Press (2016), which will also be essential for study of Land Law.


  • Law, History, and Politics of International Conflicts

Lecturer: Dr. Anna Bara

Times and location: Blockveranstaltung  11.06.-14.06.2020 (siehe Friedolin)

Time and place will be announced in good time.

Course description:

This module examines the origins, causes and outcomes of different types of conflicts, ranging from modern interstate war to ethnic intrastate conflicts. Various dynamics of conflict initiation, intensity, duration, and the potential for resolution constitute the main focus of the study. Though the military aspects of certain conflicts are discussed in terms of impact and outcome, this course does not concentrate on battles and warfare per se. Instead, the political, economic, and ideological background to, influence on, and consequences of, selected conflicts are examined, particularly those pertaining to international and global conflicts. Other matters of interest will concentrate around the success and failure of collective security, revolutionary and civil wars, the role of nationalism, regional disputes, and attempts at “humanitarian” intervention in the post-Cold War period. The empirical material includes historical, political, organisational, and economic grounds as well as the narratives of the parties involved analysed through the lens of conflict theory. While the main emphasis is on international conflicts of the XX century, comparative reference will be made to both earlier conflicts and those that have occurred in the beginning of the XXI century.

Proposed course book:

International History of the Twentieth Century and Beyond, edited by Antony Best, Jussi M. Hanhimäki, Joseph A. Maiolo, and Kirsten E. Schulze. Second Edition (London and New York: Routledge, a Taylor & Francis Group, 2008). ISBN 978-0-415-43896-4.


Additional Indicative Reading List

. Geller, Daniel S. and J. David Singer. Nations at War: A Scientific Study of International   Conflict (1998)

. Kaldor, Mary, New and old wars. Cambridge, Polity Press, 2006, 2nd ed.

.Kalyvas, S. N., Shapiro, I., & Masoud, T. E., eds., Order, conflict,

and violence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).

. Kennedy, David, The Dark Sides of Virtue: Reassessing International

Humanitarianism (Princeton University Press, 2004).

. Pons, Silvio and Federico Romero, eds., Reinterpreting the End of the Cold War: Issues,    Interpretations, Periodizations (2005)

. Schroeder, Paul W. Systems, Stability, and Statecraft: Essays on the International History of Modern Europe.  David Wetzel, Robert Jervis, and Jack S. Levy, eds. (2004)

. Tilly, Charles. “War Making and State Making as Organized Crime” in Bringing the State Back, edited by Peter Evans, Dietrich Rueschemeyer, and Theda Skocpol  (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985).

. The Law of Armed Conflict, International Humanitarian Law in War, by Gary D. Solis (Cambridge University Press; 1st ed., 2010).

4th semester and higher who have been admitted to the L&L Program


  • Tort Law

The classes in contract law will take place during the summer semester. The format (face-to-face, digital or a combination thereof) will be decided by late May. Students shall be notifies via the normal channels.

Lecturer: Andrew Otto

Times and location: Blockveranstaltung

  • Friday, 22.05.2020, 10:00 - 20:00, Carl-Zeiß-Straße 3, SR
  • Saturday, 23.05.2020, 10:00 - 12:00, Carl-Zeiß-Straße 3, SR
  • Thursday, 04.06.2020, 18:00 - 21:00, Carl-Zeiß-Straße 3, SR
  • Friday, 05.06.2020, 10:00 - 20:00, Carl-Zeiß-Straße 3, SR
  • Saturday, 06.06.2020, 10:00 - 12:00, Carl-Zeiß-Straße 3, SR 121
  • Thursday, 11.06.2020, 18:00 - 21:00, Carl-Zeiß-Straße 3, SR
  • Friday, 12.06.2020, 10:00 - 20:00, Carl-Zeiß-Straße 3, SR
  • Saturday, 13.06.2020, 10:00 - 12:00, Carl-Zeiß-Straße 3, SR 121
  • Thursday, 09.07.2020, 18:00 - 21:00, Carl-Zeiß-Straße 3, SR
  • Friday, 10.07.2020, 10:00 - 20:00, Carl-Zeiß-Straße 3, SR
  • Saturday, 11.07.2020, 10:00 - 12:00, Carl-Zeiß-Straße 3, SR 121

Location details will be announced in good time.

Course description:

The law of Tort tells us when people may recover compensation for an infringement of their rights outside a contractual relationship. In English Law there is no single principle of tort but rather a series of different torts. Tort Law is essentially based on Common Law and this will be honoured by focusing on important jedgments, most notably the famous cae von Donoghue v. Stevenson [1932] AC 562. Classes will depend on student participation (in English of course). Students will need to be fluent in the English language and have an understanding how the Common Law functions.

Mark Lunney and Ken Oliphant, Tort Law: Text and Materials, Fifth Edition (2013).


4th semester and higher who have been admitted to the L&L Program



Lecturers Inhalt einblenden


Prof. Dr. Christoph Ohler

Room 1.50
Phone: +49 (0) 3641/9-42270


Andrew Otto

Andrew Otto teaches English Law within the framework of the University of London International Programmes at the University of Passau, Germany. He is a Visiting Professor at a number of Siberian universities, a regular guest lecturer at universities in Italy, Spain, France and the United Kingdom. Before coming to Passau in 2004 Andrew Otto worked briefly with the European Agency for Reconstruction in Kosovo and from 1998 - 2003 as lecturer in Law at the University of Warwick. Born in Yorkshire and brought up in England, the Netherlands and Germany, he studied German and European Law in Saarbrücken where he successfully passed the Second State Examinations for Lawyers in 1993.



Dr. Stephen Swann
Lecturer in English Common Law



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